Sunday, March 29, 2009

Washington Trip & Wild Horse Sanctuary Plan Details

Dear Friends,

I've just returned from Washington DC where we met with senators and their staff to present our Wild Horse Sanctuary business plan. We feel that it was well received and look forward to further cooperation with elected officials and the BLM. At this time, we are eagerly anticipating the appointment of the new head of the BLM. While this transition is in progress, we continue to build momentum in Washington DC to support the Sanctuary (which will save American taxpayers millions), and rescue the thousands of wild horses that are held in captivity and at risk of slaughter.

Now more than ever, we need to put public pressure on the BLM for the sake of these wild horses and burros. The thousands of emails and letters you've sent have made a tremendous impact. We're still on target to reach 5,000! If you have not yet contacted Salazar and the BLM, please click here to send them a message in support of the Wild Horse Sanctuary. Again, please forward this email to as many people and groups as possible.

In addition, we have recently posted on updates on the Wild Horse Sanctuary Plan. This provides more details on the Plan as well as addresses many of the questions and suggestions you've submitted. Please click here to read more.

As always, thank you for your support and passionate concern for America's wild horses and burros. All of our efforts are making a difference to save the lives of these extraordinary animals.

With gratitude,
Madeleine Pickens
The National Wild Horse Foundation

P.S. To take action, visit and click Take action now.

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Thursday, March 26, 2009


Washington, DC (March 26, 2009) – A bill to ban horse slaughter was introduced in the United States Senate today. Sponsored by Senators Mary Landrieu (D-LA) and John Ensign (R-NV), the Landrieu-Ensign "Prevention of Equine Cruelty Act" will end the slaughter of American horses here and abroad. The sponsors, who have long championed the cause, have the bipartisan support of 14 colleagues who are co-sponsoring the bill.
The legislation comes at a time when horse slaughter no longer occurs on U.S. soil, but each year tens of thousands of American horses continue to be hauled to Canada, Mexico and further abroad. Reports show that horses regularly travel for hundreds or even thousands of miles to the slaughterhouses on double-deck cattle trucks without food, water or rest. At some Mexican slaughterhouses horses are stabbed repeatedly in the spine until they are paralyzed, after which they are butchered while still fully conscious. This country’s three remaining horse slaughter plants – two in Texas and one in Illinois – were shut down in 2007 under state law. Since then, the pro-slaughter camp has led a concerted and disingenuous effort to resurrect the industry domestically, and has used scare tactics in an attempt to defeat the federal ban. The federal legislation is desperately needed to stop the slaughter of American horses, irrespective of where the killing takes place.
"America's horses are being beaten and dragged across the border into Mexico and Canada so that they can be inhumanely slaughtered for food. I will continue to fight in Congress to end this brutal practice and ensure that American horses will no longer be savagely slaughtered for human consumption," said Senator Mary Landrieu.
While horse slaughter no longer occurs on U.S. soil the absence of a federal statute means that horses are shipped out of the country for slaughter. Reports show that horses regularly travel for hundreds or even thousands of miles to the slaughterhouses on double-deck cattle trucks without food, water or rest. At some Mexican slaughterhouses horses are stabbed repeatedly in the spine until they are paralyzed, after which they are butchered while still fully conscious.
"The time to put an end to the practice of slaughtering horses in America is long overdue," said Senator John Ensign said. "Horses have an important role in the history of our country, particularly the West, and they deserve our protection. As a senator and a veterinarian, I am committed to doing what I can for these magnificent animals."
The Prevention of Equine Cruelty Act will amend Title 18 of the U.S. Code to acknowledge horse slaughter as a form of animal cruelty. The legislation includes stiff civil and criminal penalties and gives law enforcement officials the authority to apprehend and charge violators.
We have great confidence that the Prevention of Equine Cruelty Act will move quickly. The bill, which has had strong support from a majority of Congress and the American public, is long overdue. For years I have pleaded with the pro-horse slaughter camp to stop misleading the public but they are more concerned with wringing a few bucks from a suffering animal than doing what is right. Thankfully we have the majority of Congress advocating for change and this is the year that will happen,” said Chris Heyde, Deputy Director of Legislative and Government Affairs for the Animal Welfare Institute. “AWI commends Senator Landrieu, Senator Ensign and their colleagues for introducing this very important measure.”
An identical version, HR 503, was introduced earlier this year in the House of Representatives by House Judiciary Chairman John Conyers, Jr. (D-MI) and Representative Dan Burton (R-IN). There are currently 112 bipartisan cosponsors of the Prevention of Equine Cruelty Act in the House of Representatives. To take action on this important bill visit AWI's Compassion Index.

For More Information:Chris Heyde, 202-446-2142
For over 58 years, the Animal Welfare Institute has been the leading voice for animals across the country and on Capitol Hill. Please join us in our ongoing campaigns to reduce the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans. Sign up for AWI eAlerts to receive the latest news on what you can do to help us protect all animals:

Sunday, March 22, 2009


Here are the UK horse passport regulations - -

US FDA laws -

Sec. 615.300 Responsibility for Illegal Drug Residues in Meat, Milk and Eggs (CPG 7125.05) -

Sec. 615.200 Proper Drug Use and Residue Avoidance by Non-Veterinarians (CPG 7125.37) -

Page 136 - Fast Antimicrobial Screen Test, only "6" horses were tested.

Pages 137 through 141 - Specific FAST Violative Residues - Antibiotic, Sulfonamide and Non-Sterioidal Anti-inflammatory (NSAID - bute) Compounds, "0" horses tested.

EU legislation provides that the Official Veterinarian must declare unfit for human consumption any meat containing residues of veterinary medicinal products if such residues exceed the permitted level laid down by Community rules. This applies to meat from domestic solipeds (e.g. horses) in exactly the same way as other meat from, more conventional, food-producing animals.
Please refer to the FDA's regulations covering food-producing animal medication restrictions and understand that horses, while not classified as food animals, are still liable for illegal and dangerous drug residues under commercial slaughter for human consumption (see below) laws. Since there is no regulation of horses since they are not raised for meat, and since they receive drugs banned from food animals routinely in their care, there is no way to regulate horses in a manner that makes their meat safe for human consumption unless we implement the 'horse passport' program (see below) as is now done in the EU (where most US horsemeat is exported) onto the US population of 9 million horses just to accommodate those few who wish to slaughter 1% of the population for human consumption. -
Our policy is to hold responsible any individual in the production and marketing chain who can be shown to have been responsible for having "caused" (by any act of commission or omission) illegal drug residues in edible animal products.
You see this throughout -
This term, as applied to food products of equines, shall have a meaning comparable to that provided in this paragraph with respect to cattle, sheep, swine, and goats.
Also, export of US horsemeat to the EU is in violation of FDA export regulations as medications used in US horses are banned from use in food animals in the EU (which includes horses).
See: - Sec. 381. Imports and exports,(e) Exports, specifically: (1) A food, drug, device, or cosmetic intended for export shall not be deemed to be adulterated or misbranded under this chapter if it-- (B) is not in conflict with the laws of the country to which it is intended for export
US horsemeat is in conflict of the laws of the EU (see those laws below).

Passports and Medicines – BEVA guidelines
Thu, 12/21/2006 - 09:41 — Administrator2
The “Horse Passports ( England) Regulations 2004” came into force in June 2004. The regulations themselves can be seen here
The accompanying DEFRA guidance notes can be seen here .
The equivalent Scottish legislation and guidance notes can be seen here .
The Welsh legislation is available here .
The only major differences between the legislations relates to the owner signing the declaration in Section IX of the passport. This must be done immediately on receipt of the passport under Scottish and Welsh legislation but can be delayed in England.– see also section 3c below . Veterinary Surgeons who are involved in seeing horses are strongly advised to download and read the full legislation and guidance notes as these contain much useful information. The Regulations will require veterinary surgeons to carry out certain actions when administering/prescribing/dispensing certain substances or medicines to a horse. In brief these are as follows…
Checking the passport
1 If you intend to administer, prescribe or dispense any substance or medicine to a horse ask to be shown the horse’s passport (If there is no passport supplied proceed as in what to do with horse with no passport – see 6 below)
2. Check that you are satisfied the passport supplied relates to the horse in question. (If you are not satisfied proceed as in what to do with horse with no passport – see 6 below)
3. Note which of the categories below the horse falls into….. a) Declared as NOT INTENDED for human consumption (in passport Section IX part II) b) Declared as INTENDED for human consumption (in passport Section IX part IIIa) or c) the declaration at Section IX has not been signed in either part, in which case you will need to proceed as if the horse IS INTENDED for human consumption. (Note that in Scotland and Wales the passport declaration must be signed one way or the other. Leaving this section unsigned is only permissible in England. ) or d) The passport contains no Section IX pages in which case you will need to proceed as in what to do with horse with no passport – see 6 below Note that changes to the section IX declaration are generally the providence of the owner (not the vet) but the vet may alter the passport declaration if for example he/she has administered a substance that means the horse can never go for human consumption. The declaration can only be changed from “intended” or “undeclared” to “not intended” – and not the other way round.
4. If the horse is declared in its passport as NOT intended for human consumption then it can be treated with drugs licenced for use in horses or under the cascade (see The Veterinary Medicines Regulations 2005 SI 2745 which can be seen here and which are summarised on the BEVA website) There is no need to record ANY drug usage.
5. If the horse IS intended for human consumption or (in England) the declaration is unsigned then withdrawal periods or complete exclusions will apply following treatment. i) What medicines should not be used? Refrain from prescribing/dispensing/administering medicines which either a) Contain substances in Annex IV of European Council Regulation 2377/90. b) Contain substances NOT in Annexes I, II or III of European Council Regulation 2377/90 If substances in either of these categories are given the horse can NEVER go for human consumption. (Note: at least one of these substances, Phenylbutazone, we use regularly in the US, even in race horses)Substances in Annex IV (List 5 i) a)) Fortunately this list is short and the main substances that are likely to be considered for use in horses are Metronidazole and Chloramphenicol . The full list is ….
Substances not in Annexes I,II or III of European Council Regulation 2377/90 that ARE components of UK licenced equine medicines (List 5 i) b) )
Meclofenamic Acid
Methylprednisolone Acetate
Acepromazine Maleate
Etorphine Hydrochloride
Pethidine Hydrochloride
Polygeline (Haemaccel)
Succinylated Gelatin (Gelofusine Veterinary)
Pentobarbitone Sodium
Cinchocaine Hydrochloride
Quinalbarbitone Sodium
Pentobarbitone Sodium

(US FDA regs on: Phenylbutazone is a known carcinogen -- an agent capable of causing cancer -- as determined by the federal government's National Toxicology Program. "For animals, phenylbutazone is currently approved only for oral and injectable use in dogs and horses. Use in horses is limited to use in horses not intended for food. There are currently no approved uses of phenylbutazone in food-producing animals.")If an Annex IV substance or a substances NOT in Annexes I, II or III is to be administered to a horse intended for human consumption (or undeclared) the owner should be advised that the declared status of the horse will have to be amended to NOT intended for human consumption. Once this is done there is no need to record anything in the passport. If the change to the declaration has not been made by the owner at the time of administration, despite such advice, and administration of such a substance is considered essential, the veterinary surgeon may make the alteration in the passport. ii) What medicines can be used WITHOUT any recording in the passport? If a medicine is prescribed/dispensed/administered which contains a substance which IS listed (for any food producing species) in Annexes I, II or III of European Council Regulation 2377/90 then it need NOT be recorded in the passport. a) Lists of Veterinary Medicinal products licenced for use in the horse in the UK which fall into this category are on the VMD website at (under “publications” and then “horse medicines” then “Veterinary Medicinal Products Authorised for Use in Horses” then “Medicines that do not need to be listed in the passport (because the substances they contain are in Annexes I – III of Regulation 2377/90).”.). b) Where medicines are being used under the cascade reference will need to be made to the actual Annexes I, II or III of European Council Regulation 2377/90 to determine if the active substances are included (for any food producing species). There is a link to the Annex lists from the VMD website (under “publications” and then “horse medicines” then “European Commission - Maximum Residue Limits of Veterinary medicinal Products in Foodstuffs of Animal Origin”) (iii) What medicines DO need to be recorded in the passport ? At present none ! In theory medicines containing substances which are NOT included (for any food producing species) in Annexes I-III of European Council Regulation 2377/90 (List 5 i) b) above) need to be recorded in the passport (in Section IX part IIIb) BY THE PERSON ADMINISTERING IT TO THE HORSE. Lists of Veterinary Medicinal products licenced for use in the horse in the UK which fall into this category are on the VMD website at (under “publications” and then “horse medicines” then “Veterinary Medicinal Products Authorised for Use in Horses” then “Authorised veterinary medicinal products that must NEVER be used to treat horses that may, at any future time, be slaughtered for human consumption. “ However because administration of such substances means that the declaration needs to be changed to “not intended for human consumption” that then takes out the need to record their use.However, this will not be the case permanently. When the European Commission get round to producing their so called “positive list” of substances as set down in Article 10.3 of directive 2001/82 as amended by 2004/28, use of these substances will have to be recorded if administered to a horse declared as intended for human consumption. BEVA will provide further guidance at that time. iv) What withdrawal periods apply? A licenced VMP will either have a specific withdrawal period defined on its datasheet or, if not, a standard 6-month withdrawal period will apply. The list of licenced equine products for horses intended for human consumption on the VMD website referred to above is subdivided into those products that have a specific withdrawal period and those to which a standard 6-month withdrawal period applies. A 6-month withdrawal period will also apply to medicines not licenced for use in the horse and being used under the cascade. The client should be informed of the withdrawal period. Note that owners of horses declared as intended for human consumption or where the declaration is not signed have an existing separate legal obligation to keep a written record of ALL medicines or substances purchased for or administered to their horse (i.e. to keep a “medicines book”). This requirement now falls to them under The Veterinary Medicines Regulations 2005.
6. If the horse does not have a passport (e.g. is too young to require one, or does not have one available at the time, or the identification cannot be confirmed or has an “old” passport to which Section IX pages have not yet been added) then the veterinary surgeon should treat it as if it is intended for human consumption as described in section 5 above. The veterinary surgeon should thus avoid prescribing/dispensing/administering medicines containing substances in Annex IV of European Council Regulation 2377/90 as outlined above (5 (i)a) or medicines containing substances NOT in Annexes I, II or III of European Council Regulation 2377/90 for example those in List 5 i) b). 7. As far as records are concerned the veterinary surgeon should keep his own clinical record of the substances/medicines prescribed/dispensed/administered (including the date) and give a copy of this treatment record to the owner/keeper. If the medicines contain substances not included (for any food producing species) in Annexes I, II or III of Council Regulation 2377/90 or contain a substance in Annex IV of Council Regulation 2377/90 then the vet should give the owner/keeper written notification that the horse may NOT now be slaughtered for human consumption.
8. The final responsibility for recording substance/medicine use in the passport should lie with the individual administering the substance/medicine. Thus in the case of …… i) Substances/medicines prescribed or dispensed by the veterinary surgeon but administered by the owner/keeper…. or ii) Substances/Medicines acquired by the owner/keeper and administered to the horse independently of the veterinary surgeon (e.g. POM-VPS, NFA-VPS and AVM-GSL products) ……….that responsibility for recording in the passport lies with the owner/keeper (despite the fact that many passport formats are likely to suggest the need for a veterinary signature in the relevant column in section IX part IIIb) If the veterinary surgeon administers a substance/medicine then the recording responsibility lies with him/her (hence with horses declared as intended for human consumption or undeclared if in doubt record medicines administered).
BEVA have been told by DEFRA that if the horse is intended for human consumption it is the owner’s responsibility to present a residue free animal to the slaughterhouse.
Note that VMD currently (September 2005) state on their website…… “We are aware that this section offers only limited guidance. Currently the marketing authorisations for the products intended for use in horses may carry a warning that they must not be used in horses for human consumption. This fulfils the requirements of UK and EC medicines and residues legislation but the implementation of the new Horse Passport Scheme leads to some difficulties in the interpretation of the legislation overall. This is because a conflict exists between the European laws covering on the one hand, horse passports and on the other hand, residues. We have therefore amended the UK legislation to harmonise it with the horse passport provisions so far as we can. Statutory Instrument No 2004/147 came into force on 23 February 2004 and permits the legislation on residues to be read in conjunction with the passport legislation. We are currently considering how this will impact on the individual marketing authorisations and this is likely to take some time as each authorisation has to be dealt with separately in conjunction with the marketing authorisation holder. In the meantime our working assumption in interpreting the conflicting EC laws will be that we can allow the use of a medicine which contains active substance(s) that have been entered into Annex I, II or III of Council Regulation 2377/90 for all horses provided that a full medicines record is maintained and either the specific product withdrawal period or a 6-month withdrawal period before slaughter can be demonstrated. Products which contain active substances which are not entered into one of those Annexes can never be used in horses which might be slaughtered for human consumption at a future point in time so may only be used in horses which have been declared as NOT intended for human consumption in their passport. We expect to update the lists regularly – at least once every month. Holders of marketing authorisations are invited to check the lists and let us know if they consider there are any omissions or inaccuracies. As we cannot guarantee the complete accuracy or completeness of the lists, you are also advised to consult the current NOAH Compendium of Data Sheets for Veterinary Products which lists and summarises data on most authorised veterinary medicinal products. In any event, anyone administering a veterinary medicine to a horse or supplying such a product should always familiarise himself or herself with the product information relating to the medicine, as set out on the label, packaging and any leaflet accompanying the medicine. Vets should also consult the relevant data sheet or Summary of Product Characteristics. Further enquiries in respect of the lists or this page may be made by e-mail to or by telephone to Veterinary Medicinal Products Branch on 01932 338321”.
For more US info please refer to these websites -
Banned drugs -

Food Safety Issues Affecting International Trade -
Federal Meat Inspection Act
Subchapter I - Inspection Requirements; Adulteration & Misbranding -
Federal Meat Inspection Act
Title 21 - Food and Drugs
Chapter 12 - Meat Inspection

FSIS information on the regulatory enforcement of food safety inspection regulations in domestic meat, poultry, and egg product processing establishments.
Residue Violators Alert List (PDF only) FSIS monthly list of individuals or firms responsible for repeat drug, pesticide, or other chemical residue violations in animals presented for slaughter. Quarterly Enforcement Reports FSIS Quarterly Enforcement Reports provide a summary of the enforcement actions FSIS has taken to ensure that products that reach consumers are safe, wholesome, and properly labeled.
FSIS Adjudications
Food Supply Veterinary MedicineAmerican Veterinary Medicine Association.A clearinghouse of information on food supply veterinary medicine, including videos, links to state information, statistics, and media coverage.

Friday, March 20, 2009


AP Fri, February 6, 2009 12:59:57 PM CST

A resolution asking Congress not to interfere with the shipment and slaughter of unwanted horses has received preliminary approval. House Joint Resolution 8 urges Congress to keep out of state oversight of the transport and processing of horses. Rep. Sue Wallis, R-Recluse, who introduced the resolution, said it's a response to a federal bill that seeks to limit horse transport to Mexico and Canada. Americans currently send unwanted horses to the neighboring countries for slaughter, because slaughterhouses in the United States have closed. Wallis said the proposed Conyers-Burton Prevention of Equine Cruelty Act of 2009 would be a threat to Wyoming's horse and livestock industries. She said the industries have already been hurt as domestic slaughterhouses have closed due pressure from animal rights organizations. "It's absolutely decimating to the horse industry," Wallis said. There are an estimated 100,000 unwanted or unusable horses in the United States, according to supporters of the resolution.But Nancy Perry, of the Humane Society of the United States, said horses transported to Canada and Mexico are often young and slaughtered for horse meat. "Horses that wind up going to slaughter are not old, broken down horses that reach the end of their utility," Perry said. She said the Humane Society would rather see old or unwanted horses euthanized.She said the bipartisan Conyers-Burton bill has more than 80 co-sponsors and continues to gain support.
The Wyoming House would need to approve the state resolution two more times before it would go to the Senate.
This state-by-state organising for horse-slaughter is the work of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) who held a meeting last Decemeber to initiate their pro-horse slaughter agenda on a state-by-state basis. The "Pro-slaughter" states are asking Congress NOT to interfere with their "right" to slaughter horses. We MUST meet these individual proposals head on and to let Congress know that the majory of Americans are against horse slaughter. Here is a link to the state of Wyomings Legislature, Agricultural Subcomitte where you can contact the legislators and let them know that you VOTE and are against horse-slaughter;
Then please check out these other petitions as against the NCSL and the other states that propose to want horse-slaughter. We must meet them at every turn!
The National Conference of State Legislators;
North Dakota
South Dakota;

Saturday, March 14, 2009

Walking Across America for the Horses

Kremer to make strides for welfare of horses
BARN NOTES • By JACK IRELAND • March 14, 2009

Kristina Kremer is on a mission to save unwanted and neglected horses from slaughter houses, and her endeavor starts at 9 a.m. today in Newark.
Kremer, from Capulin, Colo., will begin her Walk Across America for Horses near the Main Street underpass in an effort to raise awareness of the threat of slaughter and daily abuse, and to improve the welfare and better treatment of all horses.
Kremer is deeply involved in the treatment and rescue of unwanted horses. She owns and operates the Snowy River Animal Rescue Farm, a 120-acre facility housing 120 rescued horses in Capulin, Colo. Kremer will walk down Main Street, then onto Route 273 to Fair Hill, Md., where she will take part in a luncheon with interested horsemen and horse rescue enthusiasts.
Her first major goal of the walk will be to get to Washington, D.C., and attempt to deliver approximately 1,200 letters, written mostly by children, asking President Barrack Obama to support the rescue of all horses and to stop efforts by certain factions in this country to re-open horse slaughter houses to the U.S. She hopes to finish the walk in six to eight months in California.
"This letter-writing campaign comes from children and families throughout the United States and that definitely includes Delaware," said Kremer. "The very least I can do is find a way to get someone to deliver these letters to the White House and the President when I reach Washington. I am serious, and I'm not some eccentric. Anyone out there who can help me accomplish that, please contact me or a member of our support group."

For updated information and to follow Kremer's walk each day, go to or call local contact Susan Pizzini of West Grove, Pa., at (610) 869-3629 or (610) 999-1990.

Sunday, March 8, 2009

The Restore Our American Mustangs Act HR 1018

March 3, 2009

CONTACT: Allyson Groff or Blake Androff, 202-226-9019

Statement of U.S. Rep. Nick J. Rahall, II Chairman, Committee on Natural Resources
Before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands
Legislative Hearing
The Restore Our American Mustangs Act (H.R. 1018)
March 3, 2009
Thank you Chairman Grijalva.H.R. 1018 is legislation that is long overdue. It will amend the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 - the landmark legislation that first recognized the importance of wild horses and burros to our American culture, and sought to prevent them from disappearing from the western range altogether.The 1971 Act rightly declared that wild free-roaming horses and burros embody "the pioneer spirit of the West" and "enrich the lives of the American people."Since passage of this principled legislation, however, the Bureau of Land Management, the federal agency charged with the stewardship of these iconic creatures, has struggled to uphold the vision of the 1971 Act. Under funding and charges of mismanagement have plagued the program and undermined the intent of the law.The Act originally identified 53 million acres of public land on which wild horses and burros could roam freely; the BLM has since removed horses and burros from nearly 19 million of those acres. Further, since 1971, more than 200,000 wild horses and burros have been rounded up from public lands and either adopted or placed in long-term holding facilities. And of critical concern, the BLM recently announced that, due to a combination of a lack of funding, facilities and options, they may be required to kill as many as 30,000 healthy wild horses and burros.Something is obviously broken here.Protection and management of the wild horses and burros on our public lands is an important federal responsibility - but it is clear that the federal government has not been adequately meeting that responsibility. We can and must do better.The ROAM Act is intended to help the BLM do better. It is designed to provide land managers a broad array of tools with which to maintain healthy, thriving herds of wild horses and burros so that they may roam public lands, and remain, as the 1971 Act said, "an integral part of the natural system of the public lands."A 2008 report by the Government Accountability Office that I requested identified a number of deficiencies plaguing the BLM wild horse and burro program and made recommendations on how to improve the management of the Program. The ROAM Act includes those GAO recommendations.It also expands the areas available for wild horses and burros to roam in order to provide BLM needed flexibility in maintaining healthy herds on public lands. The bill requires the process for estimating the number of wild horses and burros on our public lands, and for managing these herds, to be more scientific, more consistent and more transparent.Finally, the ROAM Act specifically prohibits the killing of healthy, wild horses and burros.I would like to offer my personal gratitude to the witnesses who have joined us today to testify on this measure. Mrs. Madeleine Pickens continues her work as an advocate for animal welfare and is to be commended for her tireless engagement in this very important issue.I also want to welcome Mr. Wayne Pacelle of the Humane Society of the United States and Mr. D.J. Schubert of the Animal Welfare Institute. Both of your organizations have been leading the charge to raise awareness of the plight of our wild horses and burros, and you all have been instrumental in your advocacy on their behalf and in our legislative efforts here today.I thank Chairman Grijalva for holding this hearing today, and I look forward to this opportunity to work towards improving conditions for America's iconic wild and free-roaming horses and burros.